Gouvernement Princier de Monaco

Focus Economy - Finance

Scientific and Technical Activities, Administrative and Support Services

This Focus describes this major sector of the Monegasque economy.

In December 2021, the Scientific and technical activities, administrative and support service activities sector had 2,536 active establishments, i.e. almost a quarter (23.6%) of the Principality's entities.

Download the Focus : Scientific and Technical Activities, Administrative and Support Service

Civil service

Monaco's Civil Service workforce exceeds 5,000 people for the first time on 31 December 2021 (+2% compared to 2020). More than three quarters of these employees are in the Governmental Administration. The gender breakdown of civil servants has remained stable, with 57% men.

On the other hand, French nationals and commuters remain in the majority, and their presence has increased compared to the previous year. 

Download the Focus : Civil service

Manufacturing, mining and quarrying, and others industries

In 2020, there were 179 businesses operating in the Manufacturing, mining and quarrying and other industries sector, which generated revenue of €695.1 million. The major economic sector (MES) numbered 122 employers and 2,558 employees. It accounted for just 3.1% of the Principality’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2019, the second lowest contributor of all sectors.

Download the Focus : Manufacturing, mining and quarrying, and others industries

Wholesale trade

In 2020, the Wholesale trade major economic sector (MES) comprised 1,277 businesses and employed 2,550 employees. It generated revenue of more than €4.2 billion, down nearly 11%. It was the leading sector in terms of revenue, but only the ninth largest employer in the Principality.

It accounted for 8.3% of the Principality’s GDP in 2019, making it the seventh biggest

Download the Focus : Wholesale trade

The Digital economy in Monaco

In 2020, the digital economy comprised 861 businesses (8.4% of all businesses in the Principality), which generated €713.7 million in revenue (5.1% of Monaco’s revenue excluding financial and insurance activities). The sector employed 1,726 people in December 2020 (3.4% of private sector employees).

Download the Focus : The Digital economy in Monaco

Public Finances

Public finances are managed through the State Budget and the Constitutional Reserve Fund (CRF). Due to the COVID-19 health crisis and despite an increase in revenue, the final 2020 budget included excess expenditure and showed a deficit of €103.2 million. This follows eight consecutive years of budget surpluses (from 2012 to 2019).

Download the Focus : Public Finances

Retail trade

Revenue in the retail trade sector reached €1.7 billion in 2019, its highest ever level. Retail trade accounts for 11.5% of the Principality’s total revenue, excluding financial and insurance activities and is the fourth largest sector behind construction.

The number of employees increased (+2.0%), while the number of employers fell (-0.2%) compared with the previous year. The number of businesses remained stable at around 800, accounting for 8.1% of businesses in the Principality.

Retail trade is the eighth highest contributor to GDP, at more than €357 million.

Download the Focus : Retail trade


In 2020, the construction sector was the third largest major economic sector (MES) in the Principality in terms of revenue. It is one of the sectors which proved most resilient in the face of the health crisis, and saw the third biggest increase in revenue after scientific and technical activities, administrative and support services; and real estate activities.

The sector accounts for nearly 11% of employees in the Principality and numbers 486 active businesses.

Download the Focus : Construction

The place of women within businesses

At the end of the year 2018, women accounted for 27.9 % of active people registered in the Trade and Industry Register (RCI) and 40.2 % of Monaco’s employee population. The share of women has evolved differently in these two populations and stills varies significantly between economic activity sectors.

Download the Focus: The place of women within businesses

Corporate governance

There are 10,627 business leaders within the boards of directors and decision-making bodies of the companies registered in the Trade and Industry Register, as at December 31, 2017. It is an increase of 6.1% compared with the same period in 2016.

Download the Focus : Corporate governance

Transportation and storage

In 2017, Transportation and storage realise 4.3 % of turnover, excluding Financial and Insurance Services and employ 4.0 % of the Principality's private sector employees.

Download the Focus : Transportation and storage

Information and communication

In 2017, Information and Communication account 5.9 % of turnover, excluding Financial and Insurance Services and employ 2.4 % of the Principality's private sector employees.

Download the Focus : Information and communication

Accommodation and Food Service Activities

Accommodation and food service activities were hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic. Numerous measures, including partial opening of restaurants, the closure of bars and restrictions on global travel all had a negative impact on this major economic sector (MES) in 2020. The sector received the highest levels of state support. Revenue almost halved (-48%) compared with the previous year (a decline of more than €387 million). The sector includes 298 businesses, of which 283 are engaged in food service activities. There are 169 employers, employing 7,215 employees. The majority of employees (76.1%) work in hotels.

Download the Focus : Accommodation and Food Service Activities

Automobile Market

This first issue of Focus analyses the automotive industry, which is traditionally defined by the matching of supply (production of vehicles) with demand (vehicle registrations).

In the Principality, other than Venturi, the market is based only on vehicle registrations. Statistics on the automotive industry market therefore only relate to registrations carried out by the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Office. The period examined was the first six months of 2012.

Download the Focus : Automobile Market

Sector-specific Focus methodology

Each sector-specific Focus presents an annual analysis of a specific major economic sector (MES), providing an overview of the sector using the following economic indicators: employment, turnover and contribution to gross domestic product.

While the lines of analysis remain the same in each Focus, the phenomena observed may be illustrated by the addition of complementary information depending on the sector under review.

General information: N and N-1 data are provisional datasets which may be enriched. N-2 data is definitive. Monaco Statistics publishes the latest available data. Unless otherwise indicated, financial data is given in millions of euro (€M).

In some tables, due to rounding, the results of the groups may not always correspond to the sum of the elements of which they are composed.

NAF: The adoption of the French classification of activities (NAF, Rev. 2, 2008) on 1 January 2012 required a redefinition of the major economic sectors (MES). In order to reflect as closely as possible the reality of Monaco’s economy, 12 major economic sectors were retained, based on an aggregation of the 21 NAF 2008 sections (Level 1). Depending on the MES under review, the Focus presents employment and turnover data by NAF division (Level 2) or NAF group (Level 3).

Employment: the data is sent by the Monaco Social Security Funds on the first Saturday of March N+1. The number of jobs is the number declared to the Social Security Funds for the month of December. To make it more relevant, data on hours worked and wages is presented for the year to date. This data may be revised following adjustments made by the Social Security Funds.

Turnover: the data, which comes from VAT declarations for the submission period and is collected by the Department of Tax Services, is as of 31 December of year N. Monaco Statistics extracts two datasets on 31 March N+1: for 31/12/N and for 31/12/N-1.

GDP: the Principality has retained the GDP approach as an indicator of revenue in the absence of national accounting. Data relating to the gross operating surplus of Monegasque businesses is obtained via a survey. The GDP for year N is usually published by Monaco Statistics during November of the year N+1. Since Focuses are published from April N+1, the GDP by sector data presented relates to the year N-1.